Archive for the 'Criminology and Criminal Justice' Category

Moving into policing – as a leader and a learner

maggie-blyth

Maggie Blyth

Maggie Blyth, author of some of our best-selling texts on children at risk has recently taken her extensive experience working in local and national government to a Direct Entry Superintendent role in the police. In this blog post, originally posted on Maggie’s own blog on 7 January, she talks about the experience so far. 

“A few weeks ago, after a lengthy application process, I became a police officer.

Not just a new job but a sweeping career change following 30 years immersed in another sector – formerly education, then youth justice, most latterly child protection. I feel deeply honoured to be entering a new career at the latter stage of my working life and to be joining a progressive police force, in such an important role, but I don’t underestimate the challenge ahead – for me it’s a two way process.

“I don’t underestimate the challenge ahead – for me it’s a two way process.”

Entering policing provides a unique opportunity to bring transferable skills as a senior executive from a different perspective, but moreover feels an unbelievable privilege, to understand better the pressures on policing – to be the learner not just the leader – with the expectation to help find future solutions. To lead beyond professional boundaries while simultaneously be learning from those who know most from inside. What attracts me to Direct Entry is the strong focus on understanding policing from the front line. During the 18 month programme about 70% is spent on patrol, in local communities and out with specialist police officers experienced in what they do. For someone passionate about working in partnership across the public sector, about protecting the most vulnerable in our communities and getting to grips with the real threats facing society, this dual function of leadership/learning as a Direct Entry Superintendent provides an invaluable chance to make a difference. Through learning as well as leading I can come at some of the problems facing the most vulnerable victims, with a perspective that embraces the most collaborate of leadership across the public sector. Because today’s most challenging issues remain the sorts of problems only a partnership response can address: child sexual exploitation, child abuse, domestic abuse, cyber crime – all within a backdrop of reduced resources.

“…today’s most challenging issues remain the sorts of problems only a partnership response can address.”

So what can I say so far?

Firstly, the brand. Surprising perhaps to some but my overarching experience has been the warm welcome. From the most senior of police officers through to the front line staff I have met in my first few weeks I have encountered only enthusiasm about Direct Entry. There is no doubt that the move has more than raised the odd eyebrow – and some have been candid with their views. But the dialogue has led to lively debate on relevant issues from officer safety; the use of force; role of spit guards; single/double crewing to more familiar territory for me linked to public confidence, community cohesion, safer neighbourhoods… and inevitably, given my background and the changing face of policing, tackling vulnerability.

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And secondly. Probably best summed up by what I saw in the first few hours I spent out on patrol with a team in my local force. During that period I saw capable, caring, committed police constables deal with much of the world I had come from, but from a different angle. First up was a vulnerable adolescent at risk of exploitation, and missing from school. Next was a domestic followed swiftly by a young adult involved in a pursuit, exhibiting everything from the excess of drugs and alcohol to entrenched mental health problems. And in the same shift the PC I was with responded to a sudden death. What struck me most was the extent of the autonomy and discretion available to front line officers and the seriousness they in return gave to being accountable, to doing the right thing with a strong desire to help the people they encountered. What it reinforced for me strategically is the need for local authorities, the health economy and policing to at the most senior level to better equip front line staff to work together, share information and ensure a collaborative response to those in need.

So the third point. I encountered for the first time a number of special constables. These are men and women with the same powers as any police officer but who give their time free as volunteers. My force has around 350 specials and I was struck by how vital this cohort is, not just providing much needed resource to intensive demand such as missing children, but strengthening links to local communities by encouraging people to get involved in policing. Doing the same job as regulars they carry out a professional and invaluable job.

It’s too early days for me to comment in any detail on Direct Entry – but as I reflect and navigate through a career change described by one colleague as a ‘handbrake turn, ’I remain humbled by the opportunity to move so significantly in a new direction but all the time bringing with me the experience and expertise of a whole different career behind me. There will be tricky manoeuvres moving forward, I will need to think hard on my feet. But what an opportunity to be part of something that could bring greater co-ordination of front line services for those needing protection. In summary my very early observations as a new Direct Entry Superintendent reinforce the need for more effective answers to these recurring questions:

  • The need for partnership solutions – how do front line professionals work together to ensure children get adequate protection?
  • How does information get recorded and shared to ensure families get right help at right time?
  • How do we use new domestic abuse powers to best protect victims?
  • What are the places of safety for mentally ill or vulnerable adults?
  • What is appropriate force, how should front line staff respond to threats?
  • What does collaborative leadership across the public sector mean at local level?
  • How do we put public confidence and trust in policing at the forefront?

As leaders across the public sector, not just in policing, we need to support front line staff working in the most challenging of circumstances. Programmes like Direct Entry offer the opportunity for any organisation to reflect on continuing wicked issues, but from a new perspective. My responsibility is to help create a new narrative, work hard to influence front line staff, peers and other senior managers. Direct Entry Superintendents don’t know everything about policing. Far from it. But we do bring a set of skills, knowledge and, in my case, lifetime careers with us, to allow a different lens through which to look and tackle persistent problems. Perhaps with our backgrounds we bring a new set of eyes and different answers.

effective-safeguarding-for-children-and-young-people-fc-13replacement_moving-on-from-munro-fcEffective safeguarding for children and young people By Maggie Blyth and Enver Solomon can be ordered here for £15.19.

Moving on from Munro by Maggie Blyth can be ordered here for £15.19.

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The views and opinions expressed on this blog site are solely those of the original blogpost authors and other contributors. These views and opinions do not necessarily represent those of the Policy Press and/or any/all contributors to this site.

Partners in crime? Understanding coercion and choice in co-offending

 

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Charlotte Barlow

High-profile male and female co-offenders provide fascinating, yet disturbing, images of crime and deviancy; the likes of Myra Hindley and Ian Brady and Rose and Fred West being some of the most infamous offenders in UK history.

It is often questioned how two people can be as ‘evil’ as each other, but this approach is usually overly simplistic. Here, Charlotte Barlow, author of Coercion and women co-offenders examines the complexities inherent in such relationships.

Although many female co-offenders are ‘equal’ partners and make an autonomous decision to offend, other women may have a less autonomous offending role. There have been a number of high-profile cases in recent years involving women who co-offended with a male partner who suggested that their relationship, at least to some extent, influenced their motivations to offend. This raises interesting questions about the possibility of coercion.

What is coercion?

Coercion means persuading or encouraging someone to do something by using force, threats, abuse (including physical, psychological, economic and/ or emotional), manipulation (including love or obsession) and/or control. The possibility of being coerced or forced into crime, with a male partner/ co-offender influencing motivations to offend, is a lived reality for some co-offending women, particularly if this relationship is characterised by violence, abuse or control.

Shauna Hoare and Nathan Matthews

Continue reading ‘Partners in crime? Understanding coercion and choice in co-offending’

“I don’t see scholarship and activism as distinct” – Plenary at the ASA highlights need for activism, resistance among scholars

Fresh from the American Sociological Association annual conference in Seattle, author and academic Jessie Daniels questions whether there should be a distinction between scholarship and activism or whether the time for retreat to the academic ivory tower is well and truly over….

Daniels_headshot2Academic sociologists sat in silence, many openly wept, as a video of a macabre scene in an American jail played in the plenary session of the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association in Seattle on Saturday.

The video, pulled from a surveillance camera, shows five people covered head to toe in white protective jumpsuits, similar to cleanroom suits in semiconductor factories. The people in the white suits surround a naked, slightly built, Black woman, and with steady deliberation, end her life.

“Black women are never seen as damsels in distress,” Kimberle Crenshaw, critical race scholar and law professor at UCLA and Columbia, explained. “Rather, we are seen as something that must be controlled.” Continue reading ‘“I don’t see scholarship and activism as distinct” – Plenary at the ASA highlights need for activism, resistance among scholars’

Can we be fair to Russian athletes in Rio?

The recent doping scandal surrounding the Russian Olympic team has brought debate about banned substances in sports competitions, and the consequences of being caught using these substances, to the global stage. 

Nic Groombridge, author of Sports criminology, discusses who should really be held accountable in this situation and what should be done in the future to discourage doping. 

Nic GroombridgeFamously George Orwell claimed:

“Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence: in other words it is war minus the shooting.”

The last phrase is routinely cited but it is worth considering some of the context. Orwell was writing in the wake of visit by a Soviet Union football team he only calls ‘the Dynamos’ (actually an augmented Moscow team, see this more upbeat account). He mentions cricket, boxing, swimming and even cock-fighting but writes with a distant disdain for his subject (see Beck, 2013 on Orwell’s own sporting endeavours). Continue reading ‘Can we be fair to Russian athletes in Rio?’

Police and Crime Commissioners: have new elections intensified the political colouring of the role?

Although last week’s Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC) elections saw a 10% increase in voter turn out, up on November 2012, a third of PCCs did not stand for a second term and there was a significant drop in the number of ‘independents’ standing overall.

Author and Policing and Criminal Justice academic Bryn Caless asks whether the evident politicisation of the PCC role along party lines may alienate already limited public support in time…

Bryn CalessThe elections of 40 Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs) which took place on 6 May in England and Wales alongside those for local councils, indicate that overt politicisation of the role has increased.

In November 2012, the first ever PCC elections were held amidst controversies about the politicisation of the police, there were worries about the high bar for qualification and the expensive candidacy fee (at £5,000, ten times that for a prospective MP). In 2016, all such concerns persist.

Cuckoo

The police themselves were initially suspicious of this cuckoo in their nest, while the media have been unremittingly hostile to a ‘mediocre’ Conservative initiative to replace what Teresa May, the Home Secretary, has called ‘anonymous and ineffective’ Police Authorities. (Actually, the ‘elected representative’ had been Labour’s idea some ten years earlier.) Continue reading ‘Police and Crime Commissioners: have new elections intensified the political colouring of the role?’

‘Black Roses’ and Developing New Understandings of Hate Crime Victimisation #NHCAW

This week is National Hate Crime Awareness week and Jon Garland and Neil Chakraborti,  authors of Responding to Hate Crime, share their thoughts on how understanding Hate Crime is developing in the UK…

Jon Garland

Jon Garland

Neil Chakraborti, author of Responding to Hate Crime & Leicester Hate Crime Project

Neil Chakraborti 

The broadcasting by BBC Television of Simon Armitage’s play Black Roses: The Killing of Sophie Lancaster in early October 2015 will do much to raise awareness of the targeted victimisation of members of alternative subcultures.

The play, about the circumstances surrounding the horrific murder of ‘goth’ Sophie Lancaster in 2007, had already been broadcast on BBC radio and enjoyed a successful theatre run, and won a number of awards. It tells Sophie’s story, and that of her mother Sylvia, in a very touching and moving way, and highlights the devastating effects of such brutal assaults upon the families of victims.

‘Senseless’

An interesting facet of public discussions about attacks like that on Sophie Lancaster is that they are often described as ‘mindless’ or ‘senseless’, as if they have little or no real motivation behind them.

Much of the discussion of the Fiona Pilkington case, for example, also contained such sentiments (Fiona and her family were the subject of disablist bullying and harassment by some members of their local community for a number of years before Fiona, in despair at the lack of help she had received from the police and local authorities, killed herself and her daughter Frankie in 2007).

“By deeming them to be merely ‘mindless thuggery’…the hate element of the incident is overlooked”

It seems as if some politicians and police officers are unable, for whatever reason, to comprehend or acknowledge that such attacks do have motives and that these motives are often characterised by hostility towards the identity of the victim.

By deeming them to be merely ‘mindless thuggery’ or ‘anti-social behaviour’ the hate element of the incident is overlooked, meaning that the opportunity to learn valuable lessons and to put appropriate preventative measures in place is lost, placing future victims in a more vulnerable situation.

In the case of the targeting of alternative subcultures, there is a growing body of evidence (which is summarised in our book Responding to Hate Crime: the Case for Connecting Policy and Research) which suggests that such groups – whether they be goths, emos, metallers or punks– are the subjects of verbal abuse and physical violence simply due to the perpetrators of such harassment being angered, disturbed or somehow even revolted by their physical appearance or way of life.

Research conducted by the Leicester Hate Crime Project found that those in such subcultures were routinely described as being dirty or unkempt by their abusers, and were frequently labelled as ‘grebs’ (a derogatory term for alternatives) or ‘freaks’.

Sustained bullying

Some were subject to sustained bullying while others were, thankfully less commonly, the targets of brutal beatings. Such harassment and violence had a profound impact on victims, causing them to suffer psychological trauma and to change their patterns of behaviour in order to avoid future incidents.

What this evidence means is that there is substance to the claims of the Sophie Lancaster Foundation (a charitable, campaigning organisation set up by Sylvia Lancaster in the wake of her daughter’s murder) that this type of harassment bears all the hallmarks of the officially recognised hate crimes, and thus should be understood and treated as such by the criminal justice system – indeed, a handful of police forces (following Greater Manchester Police’s 2013 lead) are already doing just that.

” …in their eyes it trivialises the concept of hate crime and renders it almost meaningless…”

However, there is a degree of opposition to this standpoint, not least from those who feel that comparing the situation of members of alternative subcultures with that of, for example, minority ethnic communities, belittles the latter’s long history of discrimination, marginalisation and racist victimisation. In their eyes it also therefore trivialises the concept of hate crime and renders it almost meaningless.

Whilst these points are very important it should also be acknowledged that the pain, hurt and suffering caused by being targeted because of who you are does appear to be similar in substance, both at the individual and wider community levels, whether you are from a ‘traditionally’ recognised hate crime victim group or from what could be termed a ‘new and emerging’ one, like alternative subcultures.

It will be fascinating to see how this debate eventually resolves itself. In the meantime, it is worth exploring the work of the Sophie Lancaster Foundation and seeing Black Roses, a play which may, in time, bear the distinction of being not only an award-winning piece of theatre but also one which helped shape the future of how we understand hate crime victimisation.

REPLACEMENT_Responding to hate crime [FC]Responding to Hate Crime is out now in paperback and is available to purchase here  from the Policy Press website. Remember that Policy Press newsletter subscribers receive a 35% discount – if you’re not a member of our community why not sign up here today?

For more information on National Hate Crime Awareness week, check out the Stop Hate UK website here. You can also follow Stop Hate UK  @stophateuk on twitter – hashtag #NHCAW and Facebook

Want to know more about the Sophie Lancaster story? Listen here to the BBC Radio 4 dramatisation of Simon Armitage’s play Black Roses: The Killing of Sophie Lancaster ortake a look at the Sophie Lancaster Foundation website.

The views and opinions expressed on this blog site are solely those of the original blogpost authors and other contributors. These views and opinions do not necessarily represent those of the Policy Press and/or any/all contributors to this site.

Policy Press February ‘editorial picks’: Criminology and Criminal Justice

This is the first in our new series of monthly ‘editor picks’ in which our editors tell you a little bit about themselves and share some of their thoughts on the titles they are most excited about publishing. With our newsletter focus on Criminology this month (sign up here!), Commissioning Editor Victoria Pittman tells us a bit about her background, what she’s most excited by in upcoming Criminology and Criminal Justice titles and why she can’t complain about the length of the book on her bedside table…

Victoria Pittman

Victoria Pittman, Commissioning Editor

Name: Victoria Pittman
Title: Commissioning Editor

What’s your story? 
I studied English and European Literature at the University of Warwick and my first job in publishing was an Editorial Assistant at Blackwell Publishing (before the Wiley takeover/merger). It was in the Medical Division and my first books were about Cardiology which was both fascinating and alarming. It taught me that academic publishing is about learning from experts rather than thinking you know everything about a subject area. After moving on to work as a Development Editor at Blackwell, I then joined the Law Department at OUP where I worked for five years and was the Commissioning Editor responsible for the Criminal Law list as well as other areas before moving to Policy Press in 2013.

What does your role entail and what do you enjoy most about it?
My role involves commissioning and developing new content across the subject areas I am responsible for and then managing those lists whilst liaising closely with my colleagues in sales, marketing and production. I think editorial and commissioning is the most exciting area of publishing as you get to work closely with authors and be involved right from the conception of a project. I love learning from people who are passionate about their subject area and then working with them to bring their research and knowledge to its intended audience.

What most excites you about your subjects?
I am responsible for our lists in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Sociology and Social Justice and Human Rights. This covers a huge range of topics and so many important issues. I am always particularly excited about the titles which include really unique and interesting research with hard to reach groups or on areas which have been previously neglected. For example our book Domestic violence and sexuality by Catherine Donovan and Marianne Hester offers new research and the first detailed discussion of domestic violence and abuse in same sex relationships.

What key things are happening in Criminology at Policy Press this year?
We have some brilliant titles publishing on the Criminology and Criminal Justice list this year, I really want to list them all! As this is a growing area for us, it is nice to see such a variety of titles and to be working with lots of great authors.

This month we’ve seen a particularly important one released: Children behind bars: Why the abuse of child imprisonment must end by Carolyne Willow exposes the harsh realities of penal child custody. Some of the stories are particularly shocking and it’s important that more people know about the realities faced by children who are locked up in these places.

I’m also looking forward to seeing our new textbook An introduction to critical criminology publish as I think it will be really valuable for students and lecturers in this area. Pamela Ugwudike who teaches this course at Swansea has managed to cover an incredible amount of material in an accessible way, covering topics such as Marxist criminology, crimes of the powerful, and cultural criminology.

Other highlights include Positive youth justice: Children first, offenders second by Kevin Haines and Stephen Case, Intermediaries in the criminal justice system by Joyce Plotnikoff and Richard Woolfson and Simon Pemberton’s new book in our Studies in Social Harm series, Harmful societies.

There will be lots of others as well, including some new Policy Press Shorts such as Female Serial Killers by Elizabeth Yardley and David Wilson and Privitising probation by John Deering and Martina Feilzer.

What interests you particularly in Criminology and Criminal Justice?
I find the books on reforming and improving the criminal justice system the most interesting but also enjoy reading about advances in solving crime and the investigative side. My Dad is a police detective (technically retired from the police force now but I will always think of him as a policeman!) and he has done a lot of work on forensics which always fascinates me.

What reading book is currently on your bedside table?
Goldfinch by Donna Tartt – it’s our book group book and I chose it so I can’t complain about how long it is!

What question would you want us to ask our next editorial interviewee?
If the earth was about to be destroyed and you could only take one book with you to another planet, which one would you take?

 

If you enjoyed reading this, you might also enjoy:

Children behind bars: Is it time to close our child prisons? by author Carolyne Willow

What really goes on Inside Crown Court? by Victoria Pittman


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